The hallmark of science has been to understand cause and effect. But if you look carefully – science understands cause and effect that can be observed in a given time. Evolution which takes long time, cosmos and the quantum realms, are all places where time is different. Observer bias pollutes experiments and although statistics is used to correct this, it completely fails. Some things can’t be experimented on because it simply can’t be done or it is unethical. It could even be the case that even if we discover that there is a cause and effect relation, we can’t explain the link between them thoroughly because the current psychological and linguistic concept-space doesn’t have the new notion. Scientists who don’t take into account observer bias and the limitations of time are no more than charlatans.
Reductionism leads to endless splitting and an over emphasis on 1 dimensional analysis. I don’t like holism either – it is too paralysing and preachy. So I am coining the term exploratory holism. I think it captures the best of both.