Guess and check
Model – Solve a simpler problem. In chess you reduce a complex problem to a simple end game
If you can’t find a solution, try assuming that you have a solution and seeing what you can derive from that – work backward
Use direct reasoning, Consider special cases
If you are having difficulty understanding a problem, try drawing a picture. If the problem is abstract, try examining a concrete example.
Try solving a more general problem first inventor’s paradox: the more ambitious plan may have more chances of success
Apply a similar heuristic
- Be positive. Take help, learn from history. Some problems are intractable.
Travelling salesman resembles most complex and creative problems. Simplicity vs completeness is one major tradeoff in dealing with complex problems. Basic ways of solving complex problems,
1. Best Option Now
2. Minimum Spanning Tree – Find something that spans all nodes while minimising costs
3. Find upper / lower limits and optimise within that
1. Random + Swaps
2. Ant simulation (copycat previous ants)
3. Benders decomposition
4. Evolutionary algorithms with rapid change