• Guess and check 1

  • Model – Solve a simpler problem. In chess you reduce a complex problem to a simple end game 2

  • If you can’t find a solution, try assuming that you have a solution and seeing what you can derive from that – work backward 3

  • Use symmetry 3

  • Use direct reasoning, Consider special cases 4

  • Eliminate possibilities 5

  • If you are having difficulty understanding a problem, try drawing a picture. If the problem is abstract, try examining a concrete example.

  • Try solving a more general problem first inventor’s paradox: the more ambitious plan may have more chances of success

  • Apply a similar heuristic

  • Be positive. Take help, learn from history. Some problems are intractable.
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